S&S Class





                                                            Virus invading a human cell                                                 Virus Cells


A virus is a microorganism capable of infecting almost all plants and animals, including bacteria.  They are extremely small and can only be seen with powerful microscopes. A virus can live and reproduce only by penetrating other cells and becoming part of them. They cause the common cold, respiratory infections, and gastrointestinal infections.  Other viruses include measles, mumps, chicken pox, small pox, rabies, yellow fever, hepatitis, polio, influenza, and HIV, which causes AIDS.






HIV Cells



HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).  AIDS is a disease that breaks down the body's immune system. The HIV virus is spread from one person to another through blood and other body fluids, such as semen and vaginal secretions.  It is possible to not show symptoms for many years, but testing can determine if a person is infected within 6 months after exposure. The HIV virus is spread mainly through the sharing of needles by intravenous (IV) drug users, and less often by unprotected sexual contact or accidents with needles in healthcare settings.  The virus is less likely to enter the bloodstream through cuts and sores.  It is not spread by kissing, holding hands, sharing food or household items like the telephone, or toilet seats.










Hepatitis is caused by a bloodborne virus.  It is a disease that damages the liver.  It is present in all body fluids of an infected individual, making it easier to contract than HIV.  It also can live on surface outside the body for a long period of time. It is important to thoroughly clean all surfaces that contact a client.  There are three types of hepatitis that are of concern within the salon- Hepatitis A, B, and C.  Hepatitis B is the most difficult to kill on a surface.  Make sure to check the label of the disinfectant you use to be sure that the product is effective against it.  A vaccination is available for the those working closely with the public.



Bloodborne Pathogens 


Disease causing bacteria or viruses that are carried through the body in the blood or body fluids, such as hepatitis and HIV, are called bloodborne pathogens. The spread of these pathogens is possible through shaving, nipping, clipping, facial treatments, waxing, or tweezing when the skin is broken.  Pathogens enter the body through broken skin, the mouth, the nose, the eyes, the ears, and unprotected sex.  The body prevents and controls these infections through white blood cells, body secretions, unbroken skin, and antitoxins.